An intangible asset is an identifiable non-monetary asset without physical substance. Recognition and measurement
The recognition of an item as an intangible asset requires an entity to demonstrate that the item meets:
the definition of an intangible asset; and
the recognition criteria.
This requirement applies to costs incurred initially to acquire or internally generate an intangible asset and those incurred subsequently to add to, replace part of, or service it.
An asset meets the identify-ability criterion in the definition of an intangible asset when it:
is separable, ie. is capable of being separated or divided from the entity and sold, transferred, licensed, rented or exchanged, either individually or together with a related contract, asset or liability; or
arises from contractual or other legal rights, regardless of whether those rights are transferable or separable from the entity or from other rights and obligations.
An intangible asset shall be recognized if, and only if:
it is probable that the expected future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the entity; and
the cost of the asset can be measured reliably.
The probability recognition criterion is always considered to be satisfied for intangible assets that are acquired separately or in a business combination.
An intangible asset shall be measured initially at cost.
The cost of a separately acquired intangible asset comprises:
its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, after deducting trade discounts and rebates; and
any directly attributable cost of preparing the asset for its intended use.
In accordance with IFRS 3 Business Combinations, if an intangible asset is acquired in a business combination, the cost of that intangible asset is its fair value at the acquisition date. The only circumstances in which it might not be possible to measure reliably the fair value of an intangible asset acquired in a business combination are when the intangible asset arises from legal or other contractual rights and either:
is not separable; or
is separable, but there is no history or evidence of exchange transactions for the same or similar assets, and otherwise estimating fair value would be dependent on immeasurable variables.
Internally generated intangible assets
Internally generated goodwill shall not be recognized as an asset.
No intangible asset arising from research (or from the research phase of an internal project) shall be recognized. Expenditure on research (or on the research phase of an internal project) shall be recognized as an expense when it is incurred.
An intangible asset arising from development (or from the development phase of an internal project) shall be recognized if, and only if, an entity can demonstrate all of the following:
the technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale.
its intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it.
its ability to use or sell the intangible asset.
how the intangible asset will generate probable future economic benefits. Among other things, the entity can demonstrate the existence of a market for the output of the intangible asset or the intangible asset itself or, if it is to be used internally, the usefulness of the intangible asset.
the availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the intangible asset.
its ability to measure reliably the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development.
Internally generated brands, mastheads, publishing titles, customer lists and items similar in substance shall not be recognized as intangible assets.
Expenditure on an intangible item shall be recognized as an expense when it is incurred unless:
it forms part of the cost of an intangible asset that meets the recognition criteria; or
the item is acquired in a business combination and cannot be recognized as an
intangible asset. If this is the case, this expenditure (included in the cost of the
business combination) shall form part of the amount attributed to goodwill at the
Measurement after recognition
An entity shall choose either the cost model or the revaluation model as its accounting policy. If an intangible asset is accounted for using the revaluation model, all the other assets in its class shall also be accounted for using the same model, unless there is no active market for those assets.
Cost model: After initial recognition, an intangible asset shall be carried at its cost less any accumulated amortization and any accumulated impairment losses.
Revaluation model: After initial recognition, an intangible asset shall be carried at a revalued amount, being its fair value at the date of the revaluation less any subsequent accumulated amortization and any subsequent accumulated impairment losses. For the purpose of revaluations under this Standard, fair value shall be determined by reference to an active market. Revaluations shall be made with such regularity that at the balance sheet date the carrying amount of the asset does not differ materially from its fair value.
An active market is a market in which all the following conditions exist:
the items traded in the market are homogeneous;
willing buyers and sellers can normally be found at any time; and
prices are available to the public.
If an intangible asset's carrying amount is increased as a result of a revaluation, the increase shall be credited directly to equity under the heading of revaluation surplus. However, the increase shall be recognized in profit or loss to the extent that it reverses a revaluation decrease of the same asset previously recognized in profit or loss. If an intangible asset's carrying amount is decreased as a result of a revaluation, the decrease shall be recognized in profit or loss. However, the decrease shall be debited directly to equity under the heading of revaluation surplus to the extent of any credit balance in the revaluation surplus in respect of that asset.
An entity shall assess whether the useful life of an intangible asset is finite or indefinite and, if finite, the length of, or number of production or similar units constituting, that useful life. An intangible asset shall be regarded by the entity as having an indefinite useful life when, based on an analysis of all of the relevant factors, there is no foreseeable limit to the period over which the asset is expected to generate net cash inflows for the entity.
Useful life is:
the period over which an asset is expected to be available for use by an entity; or
the number of production or similar units expected to be obtained from the asset by an entity.
The useful life of an intangible asset that arises from contractual or other legal rights shall not exceed the period of the contractual or other legal rights, but may be shorter depending on the period over which the entity expects to use the asset. If the contractual or other legal rights are conveyed for a limited term that can be renewed,
the useful life of the intangible asset shall include the renewal period(s) only if there is evidence to support renewal by the entity without significant cost.
To determine whether an intangible asset is impaired, an entity applies IAS 36 Impairment of Assets.
Intangible assets with finite useful lives
The depreciable amount of an intangible asset with a finite useful life shall be allocated on a systematic basis over its useful life. Depreciable amount is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its residual value. Amortization shall begin when the asset is available for use, ie when it is in the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management. Amortization shall cease at the earlier of the date that the asset is classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations and the date that the asset is derecognized. The amortization method used shall reflect the pattern in which the asset's future economic benefits are expected to be consumed by the entity. If that pattern cannot be determined reliably, the straight-line method shall be used. The amortization charge for each period shall be recognized in profit or loss unless this or another Standard permits or requires it to be included in the carrying amount of another asset.
The residual value of an intangible asset is the estimated amount that an entity would currently obtain from disposal of the asset, after deducting the estimated costs of disposal, if the asset were already of the age and in the condition expected at the end of its useful life. The residual value of an intangible asset with a finite useful life shall be assumed to be zero unless:
there is a commitment by a third party to purchase the asset at the end of its useful life; or
there is an active market for the asset and:
residual value can be determined by reference to that market; and
it is probable that such a market will exist at the end of the asset's useful life.
The amortization period and the amortization method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life shall be reviewed at least at each financial year-end. If the expected useful life of the asset is different from previous estimates, the amortization period shall be changed accordingly. If there has been a change in the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in the asset, the amortization method shall be changed to reflect the changed pattern. Such changes shall be accounted for as changes in accounting estimates in accordance with IAS 8.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives
An intangible asset with an indefinite useful life shall not be amortized.
In accordance with IAS 36 Impairment of Assets, an entity is required to test an intangible asset with an indefinite useful life for impairment by comparing its recoverable amount with its carrying amount
(a) annually, and
(b) whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired.
The useful life of an intangible asset that is not being amortized shall be reviewed each period to determine whether events and circumstances continue to support an indefinite useful life assessment for that asset. If they do not, the change in the useful life assessment from indefinite to finite shall be accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate in accordance with IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors.